An Ecosystem to Generate, Share, and Use Datasets in Reinforcement Studying


Most reinforcement studying (RL) and sequential choice making algorithms require an agent to generate coaching knowledge by means of massive quantities of interactions with their surroundings to realize optimum efficiency. That is extremely inefficient, particularly when producing these interactions is troublesome, resembling gathering knowledge with an actual robotic or by interacting with a human knowledgeable. This subject could be mitigated by reusing exterior sources of data, for instance, the RL Unplugged Atari dataset, which incorporates knowledge of an artificial agent taking part in Atari video games.

Nevertheless, there are only a few of those datasets and a wide range of duties and methods of producing knowledge in sequential choice making (e.g., knowledgeable knowledge or noisy demonstrations, human or artificial interactions, and so on.), making it unrealistic and never even fascinating for the entire group to work on a small variety of consultant datasets as a result of these won’t ever be consultant sufficient. Furthermore, a few of these datasets are launched in a kind that solely works with sure algorithms, which prevents researchers from reusing this knowledge. For instance, quite than together with the sequence of interactions with the surroundings, some datasets present a set of random interactions, making it inconceivable to reconstruct the temporal relation between them, whereas others are launched in barely completely different codecs, which may introduce delicate bugs which can be very troublesome to determine.

On this context, we introduce Reinforcement Studying Datasets (RLDS), and launch a suite of instruments for recording, replaying, manipulating, annotating and sharing knowledge for sequential choice making, together with offline RL, studying from demonstrations, or imitation studying. RLDS makes it straightforward to share datasets with none lack of data (e.g., maintaining the sequence of interactions as an alternative of randomizing them) and to be agnostic to the underlying authentic format, enabling customers to shortly check new algorithms on a wider vary of duties. Moreover, RLDS gives instruments for gathering knowledge generated by both artificial brokers (EnvLogger) or people (RLDS Creator), in addition to for inspecting and manipulating the collected knowledge. In the end, integration with TensorFlow Datasets (TFDS) facilitates the sharing of RL datasets with the analysis group.

With RLDS, customers can report interactions between an agent and an surroundings in a lossless and normal format. Then, they will use and rework this knowledge to feed completely different RL or Sequential Choice Making algorithms, or to carry out knowledge evaluation.

Dataset Construction

Algorithms in RL, offline RL, or imitation studying might devour knowledge in very completely different codecs, and, if the format of the dataset is unclear, it is easy to introduce bugs attributable to misinterpretations of the underlying knowledge. RLDS makes the information format specific by defining the contents and the that means of every of the fields of the dataset, and gives instruments to re-align and rework this knowledge to suit the format required by any algorithm implementation. In an effort to outline the information format, RLDS takes benefit of the inherently normal construction of RL datasets — i.e., sequences (episodes) of interactions (steps) between brokers and environments, the place brokers could be, for instance, rule-based/automation controllers, formal planners, people, animals, or a mixture of those. Every of those steps accommodates the present statement, the motion utilized to the present statement, the reward obtained because of making use of motion, and the low cost obtained along with reward. Steps additionally embody further data to point whether or not the step is the primary or final of the episode, or if the statement corresponds to a terminal state. Every step and episode might also include customized metadata that can be utilized to retailer environment-related or model-related knowledge.

Producing the Information

Researchers produce datasets by recording the interactions with an surroundings made by any sort of agent. To keep up its usefulness, uncooked knowledge is ideally saved in a lossless format by recording all the knowledge that’s produced, maintaining the temporal relation between the information gadgets (e.g., ordering of steps and episodes), and with out making any assumption on how the dataset goes for use sooner or later. For this, we launch EnvLogger, a software program library to log agent-environment interactions in an open format.

EnvLogger is an surroundings wrapper that data agent–surroundings interactions and saves them in long-term storage. Though EnvLogger is seamlessly built-in within the RLDS ecosystem, we designed it to be usable as a stand-alone library for larger modularity.

As in most machine studying settings, gathering human knowledge for RL is a time consuming and labor intensive course of. The frequent strategy to deal with that is to make use of crowd-sourcing, which requires user-friendly entry to environments that could be troublesome to scale to massive numbers of members. Inside the RLDS ecosystem, we launch a web-based device known as RLDS Creator, which gives a common interface to any human-controllable surroundings by means of a browser. Customers can work together with the environments, e.g., play the Atari video games on-line, and the interactions are recorded and saved such that they are often loaded again later utilizing RLDS for evaluation or to coach brokers.

Sharing the Information

Datasets are sometimes onerous to provide, and sharing with the broader analysis group not solely permits reproducibility of former experiments, but additionally accelerates analysis because it makes it simpler to run and validate new algorithms on a variety of situations. For that objective, RLDS is built-in with TensorFlow Datasets (TFDS), an current library for sharing datasets throughout the machine studying group. As soon as a dataset is a part of TFDS, it’s listed within the international TFDS catalog, making it accessible to any researcher through the use of tfds.load(name_of_dataset), which masses the information both in Tensorflow or in Numpy codecs.

TFDS is unbiased of the underlying format of the unique dataset, so any current dataset with RLDS-compatible format can be utilized with RLDS, even when it was not initially generated with EnvLogger or RLDS Creator. Additionally, with TFDS, customers hold possession and full management over their knowledge and all datasets embody a quotation to credit score the dataset authors.

Consuming the Information

Researchers can use the datasets with a purpose to analyze, visualize or practice a wide range of machine studying algorithms, which, as famous above, might devour knowledge in numerous codecs than the way it has been saved. For instance, some algorithms, like R2D2 or R2D3, devour full episodes; others, like Behavioral Cloning or ValueDice, devour batches of randomized steps. To allow this, RLDS gives a library of transformations for RL situations. These transformations have been optimized, considering the nested construction of the RL datasets, and so they embody auto-batching to speed up a few of these operations. Utilizing these optimized transformations, RLDS customers have full flexibility to simply implement some excessive degree functionalities, and the pipelines developed are reusable throughout RLDS datasets. Instance transformations embody statistics throughout the total dataset for chosen step fields (or sub-fields) or versatile batching respecting episode boundaries. You possibly can discover the present transformations on this tutorial and see extra complicated actual examples on this Colab.

Out there Datasets

For the time being, the next datasets (suitable with RLDS) are in TFDS:

Our group is dedicated to shortly increasing this record within the close to future and exterior contributions of latest datasets to RLDS and TFDS are welcomed.


The RLDS ecosystem not solely improves reproducibility of analysis in RL and sequential choice making issues, but additionally permits new analysis by making it simpler to share and reuse knowledge. We hope the capabilities provided by RLDS will provoke a pattern of releasing structured RL datasets, holding all the knowledge and overlaying a wider vary of brokers and duties.


In addition to the authors of this submit, this work has been finished by Google Analysis groups in Paris and Zurich in Collaboration with Deepmind. Specifically by Sertan Girgin, Damien Vincent, Hanna Yakubovich, Daniel Kenji Toyama, Anita Gergely, Piotr Stanczyk, Raphaël Marinier, Jeremiah Harmsen, Olivier Pietquin and Nikola Momchev. We additionally need to thank the collaboration of different engineers and researchers who supplied suggestions and contributed to the undertaking. Specifically, George Tucker, Sergio Gomez, Jerry Li, Caglar Gulcehre, Pierre Ruyssen, Etienne Pot, Anton Raichuk, Gabriel Dulac-Arnold, Nino Vieillard, Matthieu Geist, Alexandra Faust, Eugene Brevdo, Tom Granger, Zhitao Gong, Toby Boyd and Tom Small.


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