When and use HTML sitemaps for search engine marketing and UX


Google search advocate John Mueller has at all times downplayed the worth of HTML sitemaps. Lately, he reiterated his dissatisfaction with HTML sitemaps, saying: 

“I modified my thoughts on HTML sitemaps over time, they need to by no means be wanted. Websites small [and] massive ought to at all times have a transparent navigational construction.”

This can be a barely stronger stance than what he’s expressed previously:

“With regards to search engine marketing … for small websites, your web site must be crawlable anyway (and if you happen to’re utilizing a standard CMS, it’ll nearly at all times be high quality) & for big websites, they’re not going to be helpful anyway (use sitemaps, use regular cross-linking, examine with a crawler of your selection).”

Whereas Mueller makes a very good level, for my part, we are able to’t simply fully drop HTML sitemaps. Hyperlinks and web site usability nonetheless matter. 

I additionally like what former Googler and now fashionable search engine marketing skilled Pedro Dias mentioned in response to Mueller’s remarks, which displays the fact of the online:

“Sadly it’s not simple to alter the structure on advanced and enormous web sites. Typically, one thing like this, [sic!] can take years to alter, because it depends upon a number of groups. So, HTML sitemaps are sometimes a welcome and temporary-ish resolution. I used to dislike them… These days, I see their use-cases.”

There’s a compromise between each HTML and XML sitemaps, in order at all times in search engine marketing, “it relies upon.” 

Learn under why, when and use sitemaps to profit your web site and its customers. 

What are sitemaps and why did they get invented?

Within the early days of the online, many web sites grew organically. 

Web sites weren’t appropriately deliberate by data architects in line with UX finest practices. 

They began from scratch, and site owners added content material every time wanted in usually far-from-usable methods. 

These had been the times earlier than blogs, social media or content material administration techniques. While you constructed a web site, you probably did it your self utilizing HTML.

Usually, you had been manually coding the HTML in a textual content editor, utilizing a messy WYSIWYG editor like Dreamweaver or one of many first usually custom-built and fairly cumbersome CMS instruments. Both manner, web site constructions shortly grew to become complicated.

So out of necessity, folks began including sitemaps to their web sites to make some sense of the growing dysfunction. These sitemaps had been created in plain HTML and appeared like another webpage, a part of the truth that they displayed a map as a substitute of written content material.

Later search engines like google and yahoo launched so-called XML sitemaps meant to exchange guide “search engine submission.”

Greater than 25 years later, HTML sitemaps are much less most popular. However can we actually cease utilizing HTML sitemaps, similar to we dropped visitor books or webrings? 

HTML vs. XML sitemaps – the seen vs. the invisible

To make it brief and easy, the primary distinction between HTML and XML sitemaps is that an HTML sitemap is normally seen to web site guests whereas an XML sitemap isn’t. (The latter primarily made for search engines like google and yahoo.)

The XML sitemaps normal was launched on the finish of 2007 by search engines like google and yahoo like Google, Yahoo and Bing (then MSN). 

By default, they’re formatted in a manner that doesn’t show nicely or is readable for people. As an alternative, such sitemaps are used primarily to make sure correct and quicker indexing by search engines like google and yahoo.

However, simply because a useful resource is on an XML sitemap doesn’t imply Google and Bing will index it, or will probably be findable even when it’s within the index.

One other search engine marketing colleague Rob Watts added a tongue-in-cheek, first-hand account to the talk by saying:

“I had websites do nicely for years that had been absent of html or xml sitemaps. I eliminated my tin foil hat and started utilizing xml sitemaps and loved seeing how lengthy it took for urls to seem in serps. I don’t assume I noticed any noticeable enchancment efficiency clever for his or her use, nevertheless it made some analyses/studies barely simpler.”

So with XML sitemaps solely theoretically guaranteeing crawling and indexing, do now we have to concentrate on them and neglect seen or visible sitemaps

Get the day by day publication search entrepreneurs depend on.

Why ought to we create sitemaps solely for Google?

Through the years, Google spokespeople instructed us to create web sites for customers, not search engines like google and yahoo. Why make an exception on the subject of sitemaps and solely create them for Google and different search engines like google and yahoo? 

It makes me ponder whether different search engine marketing techniques that show one factor for search bots and one thing totally different for web site guests can also be a good suggestion.

Anyway, Google mentioned so, so we should hear, proper? Not likely.

There have to be a cause why Google dislikes HTML sitemaps and prefers XML.

XML sitemaps are normally automated and embody all of the content material revealed as quickly because it’s on-line. 

On WordPress, quite a few instruments create sitemaps for you. Yoast search engine marketing additionally covers you, for instance, even the essential free model.

In 2020, WordPress lastly added XML sitemap help to its core, so you will not even want exterior plugins.

The XML code format can also be machine-readable, whereas HTML is messy. HTML has to work regardless of errors, whereas XML breaks if you neglect a personality.

So on the finish of the day, the XML sitemap creation works largely behind the scenes with out error-prone human fingers interfering.

Additionally, most individuals won’t ever see your XML sitemap, they would not even know the place to search out it as it isn’t linked wherever visibly on the location.

Making XML sitemaps work for folks

Fortunately, there’s at all times some center floor. You do not have to make XML sitemaps invisible. 

You may format XML sitemaps with stylesheets similar to you do with any HTML pages.

This method has been working so long as XML has been round. There are tutorials out there that assist you with that.

Certainly for some time, it appeared that XML would substitute HTML as the online normal, or it was a compromise referred to as XHTML.

For compatibility causes, that did not occur. Although the XHTML format was cleaner and fewer error-prone. When an error occurred, the web site did break.

With HTML5 launched as a substitute, browsers embraced sloppily coded web sites to make publishing simpler however on the expense of automated crawling.

Now you’ve ideally created an XML sitemap that may be learn by folks with out coding abilities. Do not forget that it is nonetheless a bland record of all of the content material you’ve.

You should still take into account making a readable HTML sitemap in your web site guests.

When to make use of visible or HTML sitemaps

It is not both/or. You may:

  • Resolve to separate each seen and invisible sitemaps as a substitute of creating your XML sitemap seen to folks.
  • Create each seen (HTML) and invisible (XML) sitemaps in your web site for various causes. 
  • Have multiple HTML or XML sitemap. 

It depends upon what your web site seems like and what your targets are.

Use these questions as a information to creating a choice:

  • Do you wish to create a fast overview web page of your web site? Use an HTML sitemap!
  • Do you wish to get listed as quickly and as deeply as attainable? Create an XML sitemap.

That mentioned, there are edge circumstances, and lots of web sites don’t conform to typical requirements. 

Listed below are instance use circumstances for visible or HTML sitemaps.

Legacy and/or hard-coded websites

Consider it or not, there are nonetheless legacy websites from many years in the past on the net, and even hard-coded websites made manually in HTML, CSS and/or JavaScript.

Actually, you’ve got in all probability used one very often. 

Amazon.com is nearly the identical web site it was a few years in the past. It has been constantly refreshed over time and improved to this present day. 

An all-out redesign would have been too dangerous and disruptive for the underside line.

Some fundamental legacy websites might have problem creating an XML sitemap on the fly. So it isn’t an issue after they have a hard-coded HTML sitemap as a substitute. 

Do you must take away it as a result of Google says so? In fact not.

Giant websites

When Mueller mentioned that you just wanted correct web site navigation, he was usually proper. However it doesn’t at all times apply to bigger websites. 

You may’t probably match a extremely advanced web site with 1000’s of pages right into a menu with out it shortly spiraling uncontrolled. 

For higher findability, it is helpful for each people and search bots to have sitemaps that replicate the general web site construction. 

You do not have to record each web page, as that may make it too massive.

Many websites try to suit as a lot as attainable into their web site navigation and find yourself having so-called mega menus

You hover your mouse over the navigation, and the menu out of the blue covers the entire web site. 

Customers get shortly overwhelmed visually with dozens of choices to pick out from.

Additionally, typically, if a person isn’t quick sufficient to level on the proper menu merchandise, it would disappear after they lose the extent one menu. 

Mega menus are tempting, particularly with massive firms the place each stakeholder needs to be on high. 

However they’re usually a person expertise nightmare, as Smashing Journal founder Vitaly Friedman clearly demonstrates.

When doing net outreach, you would possibly discover that many websites make it fairly exhausting to contact them. 

Such is usually the case with websites having no inner search characteristic. You’ll usually battle to find their contact web page. 

A search characteristic can be a logical resolution, but surprisingly some websites wouldn’t have one, even these run on WordPress, which has built-in performance. 

Some themes or web site homeowners merely take away the search enter.

After I cannot discover a regular web page in your menu and there’s no search characteristic out there,a visible sitemap can be good.

Orphan pages

While you handle to create a menu that’s usable with out changing into so enormous that it doesn’t match some screens anymore, you’ll usually find yourself with orphan pages. 

Orphan pages are webpages that aren’t linked internally from the menu construction or contained in the content material. 

This occurs when content material will get eliminated and up to date, and a few hyperlinks disappear.

Oftentimes, orphan pages must be eliminated altogether. 

Others nonetheless make sense however may not be as vital to put into the primary menu or the footer hyperlinks. 

Such orphan pages can be high quality when linked in a visual, readable sitemap so that folks on the lookout for them can discover and entry them.

Quicker indexing 

Let’s be trustworthy! Simply because a web page or different useful resource (assume picture or video) is listed on an XML sitemap doesn’t imply Google will index it. 

Your web site might not have sufficient authority to get all its content material into the Google index. 

This was fairly a standard difficulty for brand spanking new websites previously. Particularly with newly created websites and Google having extra restricted computing energy, some content material didn’t make it into the index on objective.

It is much less of a problem now, however you continue to might wish to hyperlink content material internally to spice up your possibilities of getting indexing. 

Hyperlink to the extra vital content material on high, prominently, and/or extra usually.

After we speak about authority, we check with the hyperlink fairness that some SEOs nonetheless name “hyperlink juice.” 

An HTML sitemap that exhibits some hyperlinks on high and others on the backside regulates hyperlink fairness circulation to some extent. 

Pages linked on high are anticipated to have and obtain extra authority than pages on the backside. 

With XML sitemaps, there isn’t a such hierarchy, so far as I do know. All sources listed on it are simply that, objects in an inventory. 

The merchandise on high is merely the newest one, not essentially crucial one or the one needing the very best authority. 

There is no such thing as a inherent hierarchy on XML sitemaps until you code one into it by declaring that some sources are extra vital and, thus, must be crawled extra usually than others.

A visual HTML sitemap lets you hyperlink these sources on high that matter most and thus ship extra customers and authority their manner, similar to in your web site navigation. So it isn’t “newest” on high however most vital on high, ideally.


As we’re speaking search engine marketing right here, crucial side of sitemaps, bettering usability, comes on the finish. 

That is Search Engine Land and never UX Collective, in any case. They advocate creating an (inner) UX sitemap for each web site undertaking, at the very least whereas establishing the knowledge structure.

HTML sitemaps enhance the general person expertise, particularly:

  • Accessibility.
  • Discoverability.
  • Findability.
  • Usability. 

These are nonetheless the strongest use circumstances for HTML sitemaps, similar to within the ‘90s, manner earlier than Google began utilizing hyperlinks for indexing and rating and lengthy earlier than XML sitemaps had been launched. 

Older customers (I admit I am amongst them) might even choose clear and page-style sitemaps as a substitute of shaky menus that vanish when you do not contact them or search options displaying irrelevant objects. 

Some aged folks can not use mouse-over and mouse-click actions effectively. 

Individuals with disabilities, notably the visually impaired, want as few mouse actions as attainable. Thus, a one-page overview is perhaps finest for them.

Helpful sitemap examples within the wild

The New York Instances 

I usually use the New York Instances for example as a result of nearly all people is aware of the publication, and it is such an authority. 

This time I wish to present the NYT for example just because they managed to do one thing proper and stand out. 

The NYT makes use of seen HTML sitemaps in a manner that’s actually useful for readers, search customers and search engine bots alike. 

The NYT has a number of sitemaps highlighted by fellow search engine marketing Chris Lengthy of Go Fish Digital on LinkedIn. It’s a prime instance of utilizing sitemaps to profit a web site.

“60 Second search engine marketing: The New York Instances has probably the greatest HTML sitemaps I’ve seen. This is an instance of how an article from 1912 is simply 5 steps away from [their] dwelling web page:”

I do not wish to go an excessive amount of into element right here, as Lengthy has carried out a superb job already at it.


One other nice instance of sitemap utilization for a big web site is Apple.com. Their plain and easy textual content sitemap is helpful for folks and search engines like google and yahoo.

Nevertheless, be aware how a lot the sitemap differs from the precise high navigation the Apple web site has above the content material.

The “Apple sitemap” begins with “About Apple” (not linked) and the next hyperlinks:

Apple Site Map

The positioning navigation begins with the store and particular merchandise in distinction:

Apple Site Navigation

Apparently, the search engine marketing crew determined to make the store and merchandise extra seen to web site guests and search bots. On the similar time, the true construction or significance of the pages appears to be fully totally different.

In any case, the large Apple sitemap provides customers a very good overview of the location contents with out overloading the web page regardless of greater than 100 hyperlinks.

Furthermore, they’ve one other sitemap within the footer reflecting the highest menu construction as a substitute of the standalone “sitemap” on the devoted web page.

It’s smaller each by the font dimension and by the variety of hyperlinks listed however nonetheless very helpful.

Apple footer site map

So irrespective of the place you find yourself, you at all times have a web site navigation or sitemap that can assist you. 

An “the whole lot is simple to search out” person expertise is central to the Apple web site design.

Opinions expressed on this article are these of the visitor creator and never essentially Search Engine Land. Employees authors are listed right here.


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